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Modern Management Review (dawna nazwa: Zarządzanie i Marketing)

Modern Management Review
(dawna nazwa: Zarządzanie i Marketing)
21 (4/2014), DOI: 10.7862/rz.2014.mmr.55



DOI: 10.7862/rz.2014.mmr.55


The present paper aims to review and discuss potential and existing risks of GM crops to the
environment, in comparison with organic and conventional agriculture. The review of over 30
relevant papers on the environmental effects of modern agriculture allowed us to define five main
sources of risks, namely: 1) Pollution by synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, 2) Exploitation of
marginal lands and protection of natural habitats, 3) Gene flow, invasiveness and “superweeds”,
4) Impact on non-target species, particularly pollinators, 5) Biodiversity of crops and wildlife.
Although these effects are typically considered with respect to GM crops, the paper compares
them with conventional and organic systems. The review shows that each factor, except for the
“Gene flow, invasiveness and superweeds” (which is a risk specific to GM crops), may have positive
and negative effect dependent on the breeding method. For example, conventional crops require
the use of a large amount of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, unlike organic crops, while
GM agriculture reduces the use of pesticides. Moreover, some risks typically associated with
transgenic crops, i.e. decrease of genetic biodiversity, may also arise from conventional agriculture.
The paper concludes that there is no perfect agricultural option and trade-offs are needed to
satisfy the need for sustainability.

Full text (pdf)


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About this Article


Anna PRUSAK (1)
Gene ROWE (2)
Jacek STROJNY (3)

(1) Department of Quality Management, Krakow University of Economics, Krakow
(2) Gene Rowe Evaluations, 12 Wellington Road, Norwich, UK;
(3) Department of Economics, Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszow

Modern Management Review
21 (4/2014)

GMO, sustainability, environmental risks, food production




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