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Humanities and Social Sciences (dawna nazwa: Ekonomia i Nauki Humanistyczne)

Humanities and Social Sciences
(dawna nazwa: Ekonomia i Nauki Humanistyczne)
26 (4/2019), DOI: 10.7862/rz.2019.hss.40


Jagna Mucha
Submitted by: Paweł Perz

DOI: 10.7862/rz.2019.hss.40


The question of effective enforcement of consumer rights has been widely discussed for many years in the European Union. The models of consumer protection significantly vary in the individual Member States. Typically, consumers can claim their rights both at an individual and collective level. The systems of enforcement of consumer protection are either public, private or mixed, where both types of enforcement function in a parallel way. The goal of the paper is to discuss the issue of various legal mechanisms that function in the Member States, serving the consumers as a means of collective redress. The main analysis focuses on the legal solutions adopted in Belgium (first part of the paper), UK and the Netherlands (second part of the paper). In particular, the author presents the complementary character of the public and private mechanisms used to enforce the consumer rights. The paper utilises dogmatic and analytical methods for the process of interpretation of the normative material and for the analysis of case law. The study uses the comparative perspective to identify solutions emerging from effective practices found in legal systems of the Member States. The paper proposes several legal solutions to adopt in the Polish law. The findings emerging from the analysis show that both competent consumer organisations commencing group proceedings and experienced judges who choose between opt-in and opt-out systems are vital in the process of effective enforcement of consumer rights. The conclusions from the study are useful in mapping out the legislative process and the analysis discussed in the paper may be extended to legal systems of other Member States.

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About this Article


Jagna Mucha

PhD, University of Warsaw, Poland, Academic Visitor at the University of Oxford

Paweł Perz

Humanities and Social Sciences
26 (4/2019)

consumer, protection, consumer law enforcement, collective redress, private enforcement, comparative analysis.




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